A deep learning model for segmentation of geographic atrophy to study its long-term natural history
B. Liefers, J. Colijn, C. González-Gonzalo, T. Verzijden, J. Wang, N. Joachim, P. Mitchell, C. Hoyng, B. van Ginneken, C. Klaver and C. Sánchez
To develop and validate a deep learning model for the automatic segmentation of geographic atrophy (GA) using color fundus images (CFIs) and its application to study the growth rate of GA. DESIGN: Prospective, multicenter, natural history study with up to 15 years of follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred nine CFIs of 238 eyes with GA from the Rotterdam Study (RS) and Blue Mountain Eye Study (BMES) for model development, and 3589 CFIs of 376 eyes from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) for analysis of GA growth rate. METHODS: Deep learning model based on an ensemble of encoder-decoder architectures was implemented and optimized for the segmentation of GA in CFIs. Four experienced graders delineated, in consensus, GA in CFIs from the RS and BMES. These manual delineations were used to evaluate the segmentation model using 5-fold cross-validation. The model was applied further to CFIs from the AREDS to study the growth rate of GA. Linear regression analysis was used to study associations between structural biomarkers at baseline and the GA growth rate. A general estimate of the progression of GA area over time was made by combining growth rates of all eyes with GA from the AREDS set. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Automatically segmented GA and GA growth rate. RESULTS: The model obtained an average Dice coefficient of 0.72+-0.26 on the BMES and RS set while comparing the automatically segmented GA area with the graders' manual delineations. An intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.83 was reached between the automatically estimated GA area and the graders' consensus measures. Nine automatically calculated structural biomarkers (area, filled area, convex area, convex solidity, eccentricity, roundness, foveal involvement, perimeter, and circularity) were significantly associated with growth rate. Combining all growth rates indicated that GA area grows quadratically up to an area of approximately 12 mm2, after which growth rate stabilizes or decreases. CONCLUSIONS: The deep learning model allowed for fully automatic and robust segmentation of GA on CFIs. These segmentations can be used to extract structural characteristics of GA that predict its growth rate.